Get The Lead Out Of Our Drinking Water

AVGAS – Spraying Lead Over Us All

Does the Continued Use of Lead in Aviation Fuel Endanger Public Health and the Environment?

Thanks to Scientific American

aviation fuel, lead in fuel, airplane

GETTING THE LEAD OUT: Lead was phased out of automotive gasoline beginning in the 1970s, but small piston-engine planes today use enough leaded aviation fuel to account for half of the lead pollution in U.S. skies, making it a real air quality issue. Image: iStockPhoto

Dear EarthTalk: Lead was long ago phased out of automobile gasoline, but it is still in aviation fuel and is now the largest source of lead emissions in the U.S. What’s being done?—L. Eber, Rye, N.Y.

Yes, aviation fuel emerged as the largest source of lead emissions in the U.S. once lead was phased out of automotive gasoline beginning in the 1970s. While jets, which comprise the majority of commercial aircraft, don’t use leaded fuel, smaller, piston-engine planes use enough leaded aviation fuel (nicknamed “avgas”) to account for half of the lead pollution in American skies, making it a real air quality issue.

Some of the health effects of repeated exposure to lead include damage to the central nervous system, kidneys and red blood cells, and decreased function in the cardiovascular and immune systems. Lower IQ levels and learning disabilities can also result from lead exposure, especially in children, whose young bodies are more sensitive than those of adults. And scientists at the National Toxicology Program have concluded that lead and lead compounds are “reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens.”

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recognizes lead as a neurotoxin and in 2008 set tough new standards for how much of it is safe in our air. In 2010 the agency identified 16 U.S. regions that fail to meet clean air standards for airborne lead; all either contained or were near airports where leaded avgas is the norm. But the EPA has not yet restricted lead in avgas, even though unleaded avgas is available.

A 2011 Duke University study found that kids living within 500 meters of an airport where leaded avgas is used have higher blood lead levels than other children, with elevated lead levels in blood found in kids as far as one kilometer away. The EPA estimates that 16 million Americans live close to one of 22,000 airports where leaded avgas is routinely used—and three million children go to schools near these airports.

Friends of the Earth (FoE), a leading green group, filed suit against the EPA in late 2011, demanding that it respond to a petition originally submitted in 2006 asking for regulation of lead emissions from general aviation aircraft under the Clean Air Act. That original petition requested that the EPA issue a finding that emissions from aircraft using leaded avgas endanger public health. “EPA has repeatedly concluded that lead is extremely toxic to humans, wildlife and the environment and causes health effects even at low doses,” says Marcie Keever, FoE’s legal director. “EPA’s continuing failure to do what the law requires and address this pollution leaves us no choice but to take this critical public health issue to the courts.”

According to FoE, 70 percent of small planes could already be using unleaded avgas with no retrofitting needed. The group says that a meaningful plan by the EPA to ban leaded avgas could spark investment in technologies to replace the engines in the rest of the small plane market that relies on leaded avgas.

Some members of the aviation community are taking matters into their own hands. The Aviation Fuel Club, which aims to make aviation fuel affordable for sport aviators, is working to ensure that unleaded avgas is available at many airports across the country. Green groups are pleased with this development, but want the U.S. government to institute binding restrictions on the use of lead in aviation fuel.

CONTACTS: 2011 Duke Study, ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1289%2Fehp.1003231; Friends of the Earth, www.foe.org; Aviation Fuel Club, www.aviationfuelclub.org.

Thanks to Scientific American

Tacoma

Quoting from Fluoride and Lead by Frances Frech:

Let us tell you a tale of two cities–Tacoma, Washington, and Thurmont, Maryland. Both of them saw significant decline in lead levels only six months after fluoridation was stopped. (In Tacoma, that was due to equipment problems, in Thurmont, it was a temporary ban by the city council.) Tacoma registered a drop of nearly 50% (20); in Thurmont it was 78%. To the best of our knowledge, no other explanations were offered. In Thurmont the ban is now permanent.

Unfortunately, Tacoma returned to fluoridating its drinking water and a battle continues over whether to stop it.

See: Letter from Tacoma Water District admitting that blood lead levels dropped when fluoridation stopped.

See: Thurmont newspaper article on lead levels dropping when fluoridation stopped

Dr. Debra Hopkins, Tacoma dentist describes how she decided fluoridation was not a good thing.

What is in it?

WHAT IS IN IT?
Fluorosilicic Acid: A Mixture of Dozens of Elements and Compounds
By James Robert Deal J.D.
Assisted by Richard Sauerheber Ph.D.
December 28, 2012

Most water districts which fluoridate do so with fluorosilicic acid. However, fluorosilicic acid is not just fluorosilicic acid. It is a mixture of at least a dozen elements and compounds, and Dr. Sauerheber and I are going to tell you how much of each.

 

The National Sanitation Foundation is the only organization which certifies the safety of fluoridation chemicals. NSF sets the quality standards for so-called fluorosilicic acid, the most widely used type of fluoridation chemical, and the one which King, Snohomish, and Pierce Counties in Washington add to their drinking water.

 

The NSF is a trade group which functions as a de facto FDA, falsely certifying fluoridation materials to be safe. The giant chemical and fertilizer companies which produce fluoridation materials are eligible to sit on the Board of NSF. See: www.Fluoride-Class-Action.com/sham. Note however, that NSF does not certify fluoridation materials to be effective, only to be safe.
This so-called fluorosilicic acid is actually composed of many elements and compounds. NSF has reported that various tanker loads of so-called fluorosilicic acid have contained and therefore can be expected to contain the following elements and compounds: fluorosilicic acid, fluoride ion, hydrogen fluoride, lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium, chromium, copper, thallium, selenium, and barium. NSF admitted in 2008 that some tanker loads emit beta radiation.

This information comes from three publications by NSF, the first an April 24, 2000, letter from NSF to the Fluorida Department of Public Health, the second the 2008 NSF Fact Sheet on Fluoridation, and third the 2012 NSF Fact Sheet on Fluoridation, plus a typical Certificate of Analysis from Simplot, which supplies King and Snohomish counties with fluoridation materials.
The various constituents of this so-called fluorosilicic acid “morph” into different forms. They combine, break down, and join with other elements and compounds as the pH and dilution change, from very low pH in the tanker truck to around 7.6 pH as it emerges, diluted, from the water treatment plant, to around 3 pH in the stomach (where half the fluoride ion morphs into hydrogen fluoride), to around 7.4 pH in blood.
The body copes with fluoride by sending it to the bones, where it binds with calcium. It is sealed off and can never be excreted because the alkaline pH of the bones prevents it from ionizing and separating from bone calcium. It is trapped there forever and accumulates lifetime.
How concentrated are these various elements and compounds? How concentrated are they in the tanker truck which delivers the fluoridation material to the local treatment plant? How concentrated are they in the water emerging from the treatment plant? How concentrated are they in the water flowing from your tap, a relevant question in the case of lead, since there is much more lead flowing from the tap than in the source water or the water emerging from the treatment plant.

 

The materials in the tanker truck are diluted down around 230,000 times to produce water containing fluoride ion at the so-called “optimal” level of 1.0 ppm. Snohomish and King County water is snow melt water and so is low in naturally occurring solids, although some water arrives in the storage lakes through springs and so would have travelled through mineral deposits.

 

The source water might contain certain amounts of some of these contaminants, although Snohomish County water from Spada Lake and Lake Chaplain is snowmelt water and as pristine as found anywhere. The calculations here do not include contaminants which are found in the source water and do not include the amounts which might be added through leaching of residential pipes, but only the contaminants contributed by the fluoridation materials, unless otherwise indicated.

 

Levels are as follows, and calculations follow near the end of the paper:

 

fluoride ion:

1.93% of the contents of the tanker truck, 1.0 ppm in water leaving the treatment plant, 31.8 billion billion atoms of fluoride ion in a liter of water containing fluoride ion at 1 ppm

 

fluorosilicic acid:

23% of the contents of the tanker truck, near 0 ppm in water leaving the treatment plant because it has broken down into fluoride ion, silicic acid, and hydrogen fluoride, there are 31.8 x 1018 or 31.8 billion billion atoms of fluoride ion in a liter of water containing fluoride ion at 1 ppm

 

sodium carbonate:

aka soda ash, added at the treatment plant to reduce acidity, 17 ppm in water leaving the treatment plant, sodium hydroxide (Draino) is used in other districts, with similar results

 

hydrogen fluoride:

1.5% of the contents of the tanker truck, in tap water at pH 7.6, 0.02 ppm or 602 billion atoms of hydrogen fluoride per liter of tap water, in tap water at pH 3 in the stomach .5 ppm or 15.05 million billion atoms of hydrogen fluoride per liter of stomach fluid

 

orthosilicic acid:

very little in the tanker truck, 0.6 ppm after dilution at the water plant, this amount contributed by the fluoridation materials, 3.763 trillion molecules of orthosilicic acid in a liter of water fluoridated at 1.0 ppm fluoride ion

 

selenium:

up to 3.2 ppb after dilution at the water plant, this amount contributed by the fluoridation materials, 24.38 thousand trillion atoms of selenium in a liter of water fluoridated at 1.0 ppm fluoride ion

 

copper:

up to 2.6 ppb after dilution at the water plant, this amount contributed by the fluoridation materials, 24.68 thousand trillion atoms of selenium in a liter of water fluoridated at 1.0 ppm fluoride ion

 

lead:

up to 1.1 ppb after dilution at the water plant,  this amount contributed by the fluoridation materials, 4.647 trillion atoms of lead in a liter of water fluoridated at 1.0 ppm fluoride ion, up to 63 ppb at random taps measured in Everett, up to 1,600 ppb in Seattle school drinking fountains as a result of lead leaching caused by orthosilicic acid, a breakdown product of fluorosilicic acid

 

arsenic:

up to 1.6 ppb after dilution at the water plant,  this amount contributed by the fluoridation materials, 12.8 trillion atoms of arsenic per liter of tap water fluoridated at 1.0 ppm floride ion

 

beryllium:

up to .6 ppb after dilution at the water plant,  this amount contributed by the fluoridation materials, 39.72 trillion atoms of beryllium per liter of tap water fluoridated at 1.0 ppm fluoride ion

 

barium:

up to .3 ppb after dilution at the water plant, this amount contributed by the fluoridation materials, 1.325 trillion atoms of boron per liter of tap water fluoridated at 1.0 ppm fluoride ion

 

chromium:

up to .2 ppb after dilution at the water plant,  this amount contributed by the fluoridation materials, 2.288 trillion atoms of chromium per liter of tap water fluoridated at 1.0 ppm fluoride ion

 

cadmium:

up to .12 ppb after dilution at the water plant, this amount contributed by the fluoridation materials, 6.44 trillion atoms of cadmium per liter of tap water fluoridated at 1.0 ppm fluoride ion

 

thallium:

up to 0.06 ppb after dilution at the water plant, this amount contributed by the fluoridation materials, 174.6 billion atoms of thallium per liter of tap water fluoridated at 1.0 ppm fluoride ion,  a radionuclide which emits beta radiation contribution from fluoridation materials

 

mercury:

0.04 ppb in tap water, contribution from fluoridation materials, 114.4 billion atoms of mercury per liter of tap water fluoridated at 1.0 ppm fluoride ion

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Background information for non-scientists: Although the concentration of these contaminants might appear small when expressed as a percentage or as parts per million or billion, the absolute number of atoms of these contaminants in a liter of water is enormous.

 

An atom is exceedingly small, and the number of atoms in even a small amount of a substance is mind bogglingly large. Avogadro’s Number is the number of atoms or molecules in one mole of an element or compound. A mole of an element or compound is the gram molecular weight or mass of the element or compound. The molecular weight of water, for example is 18, so a mole of water is 18 grams of water. In 18 grams of water there are 6.02 x 1023 molecules of water. In plain language that is 6.02 with the decimal point moved 23 places to the right or 602 billion trillion molecules. The number of atoms of water in a liter of water would be 3,344 billion trillion atoms or 3.344 trillion trillion molecules.

Let’s do the same calculation for fluoride ion, assuming a concentration in tap water after dilution of 1.0 ppm. The atomic mass of fluoride ion is 19, and therefore the gram molecular weight of fluoride ion is 19. There is not 1 gram of fluoride ion in fluoridated water, but 1 milligram, which is .001 gram. To get the number of moles of fluoride ion in a liter of water divide .001 by 19, which means there is .000053 moles of fluoride ion in a liter of water, which is 5.3 x 10-5 (because we moved the decimal point 5 places to the right) moles of fluoride ion in a liter of fluoridated water. Multiply 5.3 x 10-5 x 6 x 1023 = 31.8 x 1018. That is 31.8 billion billion atoms of fluoride ion in a liter of water containing fluoride ion at 1 ppm.

 

Although 1 part fluoride ion in one million is argued to be safe for human consumption, understand that one liter of water fluoridated with 1.0 ppm fluoride ion contains around 31.8 billion billion atoms of fluoride ion, meaning it is capable of being involved in billions of chemical reactions.
The kidneys of a healthy adult eliminate half of all ingested fluoride fluoride, but are unable to prevent the other half. It remains in the body, bound to bone permanently for the life of the consumer. Calcium fluoride is locked inside extracellular bone, which retains a basic pH of 7.4, and at that pH, the fluoride cannot dissociate and come unlocked from the calcium.

 

1 ppm fluoride ion in water causes blood fluoride levels of 0.21 ppm,  which in turn produces a fluoride saliva level of around .02 ppm fluoride ion (pages 70-73). A blood fluoride level of .21 ppm is enough to inhibits the activity of DNA repair enzymes including glutamine synthetase about 50%.

 

∞∞∞

Regarding orthosilicic acid, there is little orthosilicic acid (H4SiO4) in the tanker truck. However, when fluorosilicic acid (SiF62−) is diluted 230,000 times to the point where the concentration of fluoride ion has been reduced from 23% down to 1.0 ppm, fluorosilicic acid breaks down, and one of its breakdown products is orthosilicic acid. So-called fluorosilicic acid is not just fluorosilicic acid. It contains or breaks down into water, hydrogen fluoride, fluoride ion, orthosilicic acid, and a host of other elements in small concentrations.

 

In water where fluoride ion is diluted to the point where there is 1.0 ppm fluoride ion, there are around 0.6 ppm orthosilicic acid. Orthosilicic acid has an atomic weight of 96. Therefore divide .6 x 10-9 by 96 = which yields .00625 x 10-9, which is 6.25 x 10-12 moles of orthosilicic acid in a liter of water. Multiply 6.25 x 10-12 by Avagadro’s number, 6.02 x 1023 = 37.6 x 1011 or 3.76 x 1012. That is 3.763 trillion molecules of orthosilicic acid in a liter of water fluoridated at 1.0 ppm fluoride ion.

∞∞∞

Perhaps even more harmful than the fluorosilicic acid is the lead which comes along with the fluorosilicic acid. Fluorosilicic acid contains up to 1.1 ppb lead, which is a lot of lead, but it is a small amount when compared to the lead which orthosilicic acid leaches from pipes and fittings. Lead has been measured at random taps in Everett at up to 63 ppb and in Seattle school drinking fountains at up to 1,600 ppb. This is a shocking number. It converts into 1.6 ppm, meaning there can be even more lead than fluoride in some drinking water.

 

When lead is present in water at 1.1 ppb, there are as many as 3.19 x 1012 atoms of lead per liter, which is 3.19 trillion atoms of lead. These 3.19 trillion atoms of lead penetrate every part of the body, are hard for the body to excrete, are highly toxic, can foment trillions of anti-enzymatic reactions, and do so repeatedly because they are indestructible. A “small” amount of lead is not a small number of atoms of lead, and is wrongheaded to dismiss it as insignificant.

Comment from Dr. Sauerheber: Note that 0.6 ppm orthosilicic acid is 6.25 x 10-6 molar and would react one-to-one with lead bicarbonate to form 6.25 x 10-6 moles of lead ion which just happens to equal 1,300 ppb, which in turn is comparable to the 1,600 ppb lead level detected in Seattle school drinking fountains.

 

Deal’s translation for non-scientists: How does Dr. Sauerheber convert so easily from ppm to moles? Why do we convert from ppm to moles anyway? Scientists do not like working in ppm because ppm only tells them concentration of the element or compound by weight, not the concentration by number of atoms, which they need to know to make chemical calculations.

 

Each molecule of orthosilicic acid will dissolve one atom of fluoride ion. X number of silicic acid molecules will dissolve the same X number of atoms of lead ion, but X number of lead ions will weigh more than the X number of molecules of orthosilicic acid. To convert X number of lead atoms back to ppm, multiply the moles by gram molecular weight of lead, which is 207, and you will come back out at the ppm for lead dissolved by orthosilicic acid.

 

The calculation: 0.6 ppm orthosilicic acid per liter of water = .6 mg, which equals 0.0006 g/L or 6.0 x 10-4g/L (gram molecular weight is in terms of grams, not milligrams so we move the decimal point three places to the left). Divide 6.0 x 10-4 /L by the gram molecular weight of orthosilicic acid, 96 = 6.25 x 10-6 moles/L. (You can then multiply this number by Avagadro’s number to get the actual number of atoms, but then you will have to divide by the same number to get back to the molarity of the lead produced, so you can just skip multiplying and dividing by Avagadro’s number.) The result is that the 6.5 x 10-6 molarity of the orthosilicic acid equals the 6.5 x 10-6 molarity of the lead dissolved.

 

Next, how do we convert 6.5 x 10-6 moles of lead ion into ppm lead ion? Multiply 6.5 x 10-6 by the atomic weight, 207 g/mole, which gives 1,345 x 10-6, which is 1.345 x 10-3, which is 0.001345 g/L,  which is 1.3 mg/L or 1.3 ppm or 1,300 ppb, which is close to the 1,600 ppb concentration of the lead found in Seattle school drinking fountains. The lead concentration can rise so high because orthosilicic acid is a powerful lead solvent and because it has all weekend to do its work.

 

I am going into all this detail to demonstrate that the science is not that complex and that we should not be intimidated by the numbers and the chemistry. The science is easy enough, and the case against fluoridation is so overwhelming, that you do not need a Ph.D. in chemistry to understand that it is potent and harmful. It is a mistake to presume that we as non-scientists cannot understand these scientific concepts and must rely unquestioningly on men in white coats.

 

∞∞∞

 

The NSF standard 60 requires that a score of toxicological studies be done on fluoridation materials, however, NSF has admitted that it is not enforcing this requirement. Laws in some 47 states such as WAC 246-290-220 state that fluoridation may be done only with fluoridation materials which “comply” with NSF Rule 60. Because the toxicological studies are not being done, our fluoridation materials do not “comply” with NSF Rule 60. Fluoridation with fluorosilicic acid is therefore illegal. There are other reasons why fluoridation is illegal. Our city councils and water districts ignore this conspicuous violation of law at the peril of themselves someday being personally liable in court.

 

Some deadly compounds break down into harmless elements or compounds. Cyanide, for example, a deadly poison, carbon triple bonded to nitrogen, breaks down into harmless carbon and nitrogen. However, the elements listed above do not break down. Elements are indestructible. They can continue their destructive anti-enzymatic activity all your life.

∞∞∞

Arsenic: NSF acknowledges that shipments of fluoridation materials have been found to add up to 1.6 ppb arsenic after dilution down to the level where fluoride ion is at 1 ppm. Arsenic has a molecular weight of 75. At the concentration of 1.6 ppb in water, the calculation of the number of atoms of lead in a liter of water is 1.6 x 10-9, which is .0000000016 (note that I moved the decimal point nine places to the left), which is the number of grams of arsenic in a gram of water. Divide that by the atomic number, which is 75. That yields 2.1 x 10-10 moles of arsenic x Avagadro’s number, 6.02 x 1023 = 12.8 x 1012. That is 12.8 trillion atoms of arsenic per liter of tap water fluoridated at 1.0 ppm floride ion.

 

 

Regarding selenium, NSF acknowledges that shipments of fluoridation materials have been found to contain up to 3.2 ppb selenium (3.2 x 10-9) after dilution down to the level where fluoride ion is at 1 ppm. The atomic weight of selenium is 79 and a mole of selenium therefore weighs 79 grams. Divide 3.2 x 10-9 by 79 = .0405 x 10-9 or 4.05 x 10-11  moles of selenium in a liter of fluoridated water. Multiply 4.05 x 10-11  by Avadadro’s number, 6.02 x 1023 = 24.38 x 1012, which would be 24,380,000,000,000. That is 24.38 thousand trillion atoms of selenium in a liter of water fluoridated at 1.0 ppm.

 

Regarding copper, NSF acknowledges that shipments of fluoridation materials have been found to contain up to 2.6 ppb copper (2.6 x 10-9) after dilution down to the level where fluoride ion is at 1 ppm. The atomic weight of copper is 63.54 and a mole of selenium therefore weighs 63.54 grams. Divide 2.6 x 10-9 by 63.54 = .041 x 10-9 or 4.1 x 10-11  moles of copper in a liter of fluoridated water. Multiply 4.1 x 10-11  by Avadadro’s number, 6.02 x 1023 = 24.68 x 1012, which would be 24,680,000,000,000. That is 24.68 thousand trillion atoms of selenium in a liter of water fluoridated at 1.0 ppm.

 

Returning to lead, NSF acknowledges that shipments of fluoridation materials have been found to contain up to 1.1 ppb lead (1.1 x 10-9) after dilution down to the level where fluoride ion is at 1 ppm. The atomic weight of lead is 207.2 and a mole of lead therefore weighs 207.2 grams. Divide 1.1 x 10-9 by 207.2 = 5.3 x 10-12 moles of lead in a liter of fluoridated water. Multiply 5.3 x 10-12 by Avadadro’s number, 6.02 x 1023 = 31.9 x 1011 or 3.19 x 1012, which would be *3.19 trillion atoms of lead in a liter of water fluoridated at 1.0 ppm.

 

Regarding the lead in Seattle school drinking fountains at 1,600 ppb, the number of atoms would be a thousand times larger than the amount in the tanker truck, which was 1.1 ppb, so the number of atoms in Seattle schools would have been 4,647 trillion or 4.647 thousand trillion atoms of lead in a liter of water fluoridated at 1.0 ppm fluoride ion.

 

Regarding beryllium, NSF acknowledges that shipments of fluoridation materials have been found to add up to .6 ppb beryllium after fluoridation materials have been diluted down to the level where fluoride ion is at 1 ppm. Beryllium has a molecular weight of 9. At the concentration of .6 ppb in water, the calculation of the number of atoms of beryllium in a liter of water is as follows: Start with .6 ppb or .0000000006 or .6 x 10-9. This is the grams of beryllium in a gram of water. Divide that by the atomic number, which is 9. Then .6 x 10-9 divided by 9 = .066 x 10-9 or 6.6 x 10-11, which the moles of beryllium in a liter of water. Multiply x 6.6 x 10-11 x Avagadro’s number, 6.02 x 1023 = 39.72 x 1012 or 3.972 x 1013. That is 39.72 trillion atoms of beryllium per liter of tap water fluoridated at 1.0 ppm fluoride ion.

 

Regarding barium, NSF acknowledges that shipments of fluoridation materials have been found to add up to .3 ppb beryllium to water after fluoridation materials have been diluted down to the level where fluoride ion is at 1 ppm. Barium has a molecular weight of 137. At the concentration of .3 ppb in water, the calculation of the number of atoms of barium in a liter of water is as follows: Start with .3 ppb or .0000000003 or .3 x 10-9. This is the grams of beryllium in a gram of water. Divide that by the atomic number, which is 137: .3 x 10-9 divided by 137 = .0022 x 10-9 or 2.2 x 10-12, which the moles of barium in a liter of water. Multiply 2.2 x 10-12 x Avagadro’s number, 6.02 x 1023 = 13.24 x 1011 or 1.324 x 1012 or 1,324,000,000,000. That is 1.325 trillion atoms of boron per liter of tap water fluoridated at 1.0 ppm fluoride ion.

 

Regarding chromium, NSF acknowledges that shipments of fluoridation materials have been found to add up to .2 ppb chromium to water after fluoridation materials have been diluted down to the level where fluoride ion is at 1 ppm. Chromium has a molecular weight of 52. At a concentration of .2 ppb in water, the calculation of the number of atoms of chromium in a liter of water is as follows: Start with .2 ppb or .0000000002 or .2 x 10-9, which is grams of chromium in a gram of water. Divide that by the atomic number, which is 52: .2 x 10-9 divided by 52 = .0038 x 10-9 or 3.8 x 10-12, which the moles of chromium in a liter of water. Multiply 3.8 x 10-12 x Avagadro’s number, 6.02 x 1023 = 22.88 x 1011 or 2.288 x 1012 or 2,288,000,000,000. That is 2.288 trillion atoms of chromium per liter of tap water.

 

Regarding cadmium, NSF acknowledges that shipments of fluoridation materials have been found to add up to .12 ppb cadmium to water after fluoridation materials have been diluted down to the level where fluoride ion is at 1 ppm. Cadmium has a molecular weight of 112. At the concentration of .12 ppb in water, the calculation of the number of atoms of cadmium in a liter of water is as follows: Start with .12 ppb or .00000000012 or .12 x 10-9 grams of cadmium in a gram of fluoridated water. Divide that by the atomic number of cadmium, which is 112: .12 x 10-9 divided by 112 = .00107 x 10-9 or 1.07 x 10-12, which is the moles of cadmium in a liter of water. Multiply 1.07 x 10-12 x Avagadro’s number, 6.02 x 1023 = 6.44 x 1012 or 6,440,000,000,000. That is 6.44 trillion atoms of cadmium per liter of tap water fluoridated at 1.0 ppm.

 

Regarding mercury, NSF acknowledges that shipments of fluoridation materials have been found to add up to .04 ppb mercury to water after fluoridation materials have been diluted down to the level where fluoride ion is at 1 ppm. Mercury has a molecular weight of 201. At the concentration of .04 ppb in water, the calculation of the number of atoms of mercury in a liter of water is as follows: Start with .04 ppb or .00000000004 or .04 x 10-9 grams of mercury in a gram of fluoridated water. Divide that by the atomic number of mercury, which is 201: .04 x 10-9 divided by 201 = .000199 x 10-9 or 1.9 x 10-13, which is the moles of mercury in a liter of water. Multiply 1.9 x 10-13 x Avagadro’s number, 6.02 x 1023 = 11.44 x 1010 or 114,400,000,000. That is 114.4 billion atoms of mercury per liter of tap water fluoridated at 1.0 ppm.

 

∞∞∞

Regarding hydrogen fluoride, Simplot’s Certificate of Analysis shows that around 1.5% of the contents of a tanker truck load of so-called fluorosilicic acid is hydrogen fluoride. NSF acknowledges on its Fact sheet that after dilution of fluoridation materials down to the level where fluoride ion is at 1 ppm, hydrogen fluoride is present at .02 ppm, which is in treated water at pH 7.6. In the stomach at pH 3, hydrogen fluoride concentration is up to around .5 ppm, whereas fluoride ion has dropped from 1.0 ppm to around .5 ppm. Notice how fluoride ion and hydrogen fluoride morph from one to the other depending on the dilution and the pH.

 

Hydrogen fluoride has a molecular weight of 20. At a concentration of .02 ppb in water coming from the treatment plant at pH 7.6, the calculation of the number of atoms of hydrogen fluoride in a liter of water is as follows: Start with .02 ppb or .00000000002 or .02 x 10-9 grams of hydrogen fluoride in a gram of fluoridated water. Divide that by the atomic weight of hydrogen fluoride, which is 20: .02 x 10-9 divided by 20 = .001 x 10-9 or 1.0 x 10-12, which is the moles of hydrogen in a liter of water at pH 7.6. Multiply 1.0 x 10-12 x Avagadro’s number, 6.02 x 1023 = 6.02 x 1011 or 602,000,000,000. That is 602 billion atoms of hydrogen fluoride per liter of tap water at pH 7.6.

 

However, in the stomach it is a different story, because at pH 3, a lot of fluoride ion morphs into hydrogen fluoride, and hydrogen fluoride is present in the stomach at around .5 ppm. So let’s run the numbers again at .5 ppm. Again, hydrogen fluoride has a molecular weight of 20. At a concentration of .5 ppm in the stomach, the calculation of the number of atoms of hydrogen fluoride in a liter of stomach fluid is as follows: Start with .5 ppm or .0000005 or 5.0 x 10-7 grams of hydrogen fluoride in a gram of fluoridated water. Divide that by the atomic weight of hydrogen fluoride, which is 20: 5.0 x 10-7 divided by 20 = .25 x 10-7 or 2.5 x 10-8, or .000000025 moles of hydrogen fluoride in a liter of stomach fluid at pH 3.0. Multiply 2.5 x 10-8 x Avagadro’s number, 6.02 x 1023 = 15.05 x 1015 or 15,050,000,000,000,000. That is 15.05 million billion atoms of hydrogen fluoride per liter of stomach fluid at pH 3.0.

 

∞∞∞

 

Finally, there is thallium, NSF acknowledges that shipments of fluoridation materials have been found to add up to .06 ppb thallium to water after fluoridation materials have been diluted down to the level where fluoride ion is at 1 ppm. Thallium has a molecular weight of 204. At the concentration of .06 ppb in water, the calculation of the number of atoms of thallium in a liter of water is as follows: Start with .06 ppb or .00000000006 or .06 x 10-9 grams of thallium in a gram of fluoridated water. Divide that by the atomic number of thallium, which is 204: .06 x 10-9 divided by 204 = .00029 x 10-9 or 2.9 x 10-13, which is the moles of thallium in a liter of water. Multiply 2.9 x 10-13 x Avagadro’s number, 6.02 x 1023 = 17.46 x 1010 or 174,600,000,000. That is 174.6 billion atoms of thallium per liter of tap water fluoridated at 1.0 ppm fluoride ion.

 

Many of the isotopes of thallium are radioactive. NSF admits in its letter written in 2000 that the radionuclides in so-called fluorosilicic acid give off as much as .6 millirems of beta rays per year. Presumably these beta rays are coming from the thallium, although according to environmental journalist George Glasser, when the price of uranium was higher, the ore which phosphate comes from has been used as a source of commercial amounts of uranium. So there may be other radionuclides in the fluoridation materials which might contribute to this total, including uranium and polonium, according to Glasser. He says:

 

In a classic beta decay a neutron [gives off an electron and becomes positive and] turns into a proton, and a beta particle (electron) and an anti-neutrino are ejected from the nucleus”.

 

This amount of radiation approaching you from outside your body would not even penetrate your skin. However, once a thallium atom becomes part of the body, it is inside cells and only Angstrom units away from DNA molecules. There is no safe level of ingested radioactivity.

 

 

The only defense which the fluoridationists have when we tell them that their fluoridation materials contain fluorosilicic acid, fluoride ion, hydrogen fluoride, lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium, chromium, copper, thallium, selenium, and barium is to counter that the amounts are small.

 

To the contrary, the amounts are not small. The amounts of fluoride ion, hydrogen fluoride, and orthosilicic acid, are large even as a percentage of all the additives. Further, the amount of lead which orthosilicic acid dissolves out of pipes can be enormous, as high as 1,600 ppb. It is amazing that we ignore the fluorosilicic acid connection with lead leaching.

 

∞∞∞

In addition, fluoridationists ignore the possibility that all these toxic substances are more potent as a mixture than they are individually.

 

End

Lead and Drinking Water Summary

LET’S STOP ADDING LEAD TO  OUR DRINKING WATER

DRINKING WATER ADDITIVES CONTAIN LEAD. The type of fluoride utilized in Seattle, Everett, and Tacoma, fluorosilicic acid, contains lead and leaches lead from pipes and fittings. Lead permeates all cells in the body, reduces IQ, and causes kidney disease and high blood pressure.

FLUORIDE SWITCH. Fluoridation started in 1945 with sodium fluoride (from the aluminum and uranium industry), but the supply was soon insufficient. Fluorosilicic acid, (from the phosphate fertilizer industry) was substituted, being cheaper and more abundant. Studies by Coplan, Masters, Maas, and Sawan show that there is much more lead in tap water fluoridated with fluorosilicic acid than with sodium fluoride. Why?

 

ORTHOSILICIC ACID, THE CULPRIT. Fluorosilicic acid when diluted breaks down primarily into fluoride ion, hydrogen fluoride, and orthosilicic acid. Orthosilicic acid readily dissolves lead. Orthosilicic acid has an extremely low dissociation constant, meaning that the amount of soda ash (sodium carbonate) alkalinizer added to neutralize the fluoride ion is insufficient to neutralize the orthosilicic acid.

 

THERE ARE MANY FLUORIDES. Around 92% of people drinking fluoridated water, drink fluorosilicic acid or its salt, sodium silicofluoride, together referred to as silicofluorides (SiF). Around 8% drink sodium fluoride (NaF). SiF and NaF are much more toxic than naturally occurring calcium fluoride (CaF). Fluoridationists claim to be “adjusting” the naturally occurring fluoride level, but instead are adding man-made industrial fluorides which do not occur naturally. Naturally occurring CaF can be fairly pure. NaF is industrial grade but relatively pure; SiF is industrial grade toxic waste, highly contaminated with heavy metals. SiF contains and breaks down into hydrogen fluoride—which is highly poisonous and penetrates stomach, placental, and brain barriers—plus orthosilicic acid, which dissolves lead.

TOXIC WASTE. The fluorosilicic acid used is the unfiltered and unprocessed scrubber liquor from the smoke stacks of phosphate fertilizer plants in Florida, Mexico, and China. It contains or breaks down into fluoride ion, hydrogen fluoride, orthosilicic acid. It contains lead and arsenic. Batches can contain mercury, cadmium, chromium, copper, thallium, selenium, and barium. Thallium is radioactive and emits beta radiation. Fluorosilicic acid may contain trace amounts of nearly every element on the periodic table. It is not pharmaceutical grade. SiF has never been approved by the FDA, EPA, CDC, or any other federal or state agency for consumption in tap water. The FDA has approved pharmaceutical grade fluorides for topical use, as in toothpaste, but the fluoride is to be spat out. If more than the smallest amount is swallowed, one is to call poison control.

TOOTH DECAY. Fluoride is added allegedly to reduce caries, however, studies posted on the CDC website claim only an 18-25% reduction in caries, meaning it is 75-82% ineffective. Tooth decay has dropped just as much in non-fluoridated continental Europe as in fluoridated United States, so fluoridation cannot be the causal factor. Tooth decay correlates with poverty,bad diet, and lack of dental care, and not with the percentage of the population fluoridated.

BLACKS, HISPANICS, AND THE POOR in general are more sensitive to lead, arsenic, and fluoride than the general population due to poor nutrition, low milk consumption, and vitamin D deficiency. The poor are unable afford to buy fluoride-free water or filter it out. A distiller is the most reliable way to remove tiny fluoride ion. Alveda King, Bernice King, and Andrew Young lead the Fluoride-Gate movement. They see  fluoridation as a new civil rights issue because it hits minorities hardest.

 

TOPICAL VS. SYSTEMIC. Studies posted on the CDC website admit that the effect of fluoride on teeth is primarily topical and not systemic, but strangely, CDC still endorses drinking fluoride.

FLUOROSIS. The CDC admits that 41% of children 12 – 15 years old have dental fluorosis. 8.6% suffer from mild fluorosis (white spots and some brown spots with up to 50% of enamel impacted), and 3.6% suffer from moderate and severe fluorosis (white spots and brown spots and sometimes pitting and chalky teeth and up to 100% of enamel impacted). Even mild fluorosis can be ugly. Fluorosis should not be forced on people just so tooth decay can allegedly be reduced and then only slightly, if at all. The way to cut tooth decay is to quit consuming sugar, sweeten with xylitol instead, eat more vegetables, brush and floss, supplement vitamin D, apply topical antibiotics, and provide basic dental care. Fluoridation is a magic bullet that misfires.

PERVASIVE. If we add fluoride to tap water, then fluoride is in everything made from tap water – cola, beer, coffee, soup, bread, cereal, restaurant food, and fruit juices reconstituted with tap water.

 

LEAD IN SCHOOL DRINKING WATER. In 2004 Seattle papers reported lead at up to 1,600 ppb  in drinking water in old Seattle schools, far above the 15 ppm EPA action level and the 0 ppm goal. New brass pipes and faucets contain around 8% lead and older pipes contain as much as 30% lead. Most old schools, homes, apartment buildings, hospitals, office buildings, and factories contain pipes with high lead content, which SiF will leach out. When water districts stop fluoridating, lead levels in water and in blood drop, as happened in Tacoma in 1992. Seattle commissioned reports on the subject, but had a blind spot to the possibility that SiF was a factor. Seattle began replacing pipes in schools at great cost, ignoring the fact that terminating fluoridation would reduce lead leaching and do so at no cost. Moreover, even if replacing pipes in schools would solve the problem in schools, it would not solve the problem in homes and buildings other than schools.

THE BLINDNESS INDUCED BY GREED. The PR manipulators who sold us fluoride are the same ones who sold us tetraethyl lead. Chemical, pharmaceutical, fertilizer, and toothpaste companies buy legislators and donate to dental and medical colleges, which indoctrinate dentists and physicians to endorse fluoridation. We trust government agencies and those with MD and DDS after their names. The ADA tells dentists that they need not try to understand the science behind fluoridation. They need only accept the mystery and spread the gospel of fluoridation. Dentists and researchers who question it have been fired and have had their careers ruined. Once started, a money-making scam is hard to stop.

CDC, EPA. The Oral Health Division, one small branch within the CDC, run by fluoridationist dentists, pushes fluoridation. Likewise, the non-scientists at EPA endorse fluoridation. Endorsements prove nothing. The most significant non-endorsement is that of the EPA scientists’ union, which opposes fluoridation. Government agencies are made up of pro-industry and pro-consumer parties which explains their mixed signals and inaction. Neither CDC nor EPA has authority to approve, promote, or finance fluoridation. The Safe Drinking Water Act says “No … regulation may require the addition of any substance for preventive health care purposes unrelated to contamination of drinking water”. EPA and CDC dodge this law by only recommending fluoridation.

ARSENIC. SiF also contains up to 1.1 ppb arsenic, a confirmed Type 1, Class A human carcinogen. For arsenic the MCL, max. contaminant level, is 10 ppb and the MCLG goal is zero. A zero MCLG for lead and arsenic means there is no level of lead or arsenic which is safe to add to drinking water.

SiF AND NaF are mutagens, poisons, and probable carcinogens. As little as seven grams of SiF or NaF, the weight of seven paper clips, can kill an adult. It would take a half pound of naturally occurring CaF to do the same. The fluoride we drink is of course not immediately fatal. However, healthy adult kidneys only excrete half of the fluoride we consume, while the body retains the other half. Fluoride seeks out calcium and is retained in bones and other calcium rich areas of the body. Once in our bones, fluoride cannot be removed.

KIDNEYS AND BONES. Fluoride builds up in kidneys and prevents them from functioning normally and may hasten death. Water used for dialysis must be fluoride free. After a lifetime of drinking fluoridated water, bone can be up to 12,000 ppm fluoride, depending on water hardness and diet, making bones brittle. Fractured pelvises are twice as common in fluoridated areas. Fluoride of all kinds affects bones, joints, and tendons and exacerbates arthritis.

ALZHEIMER’S. Watertreatment plants add aluminum to precipitate dirt. Fluoride ion binds with aluminum, forming aluminum fluoride, a neutral molecule, which slips through the blood-brain barrier, delivering aluminum into the brain, which may be a factor in Alzheimer’s disease.

 

OTHER SYMPTOMS. Fluoride interrupts and inhibits enzymatic action. It denatures proteins. SiF is an anticholinesterase inhibitor. It damages brain tissue and reduces IQ while the fetus is still in the womb. It attacks the thyroid, pituitary, pineal, and other glands. Fluoride incorporates into atherosclerotic plaque incoronary arteries and the aorta in patients with cardiovascular disease. Around 1% of the population is so hypersensitized to fluoridated water that they have to relocate.

BABIES are highly sensitive to fluoride, lead, and arsenic because their cells are still dividing and because babies drink four times as much fluids per their body weight as do adults. Their kidneys are not mature and excrete only 20% of fluoride consumed. CDC, ADA, AMA, and the surgeon general have advised that if formula is mixed using fluoridated water fluorosis will result, an indication that other harms are being done.

FETUSES – IQ REDUCTION. Fetuses too are sensitive to fluoride. Fluoride and lead penetrate the placental barrier and lower IQ. The FDA banned prenatal supplements containing fluoride.

ATHLETES, HARD LABORERS, DIABETICS, and those with kidney disease are highly vulnerable because they drink up to ten times as much water as typical people. Fluoride is a drug, but the dose cannot be controlled. It should be taken by prescription only.

IN WESTERN WASHINGTON, we are especially susceptible to the slow but certain ravages of fluoride because our snow melt water is exceptionally soft and contains little calcium, which would bind with and tie up fluoride to some extent.

IRELAND. Studies comparing the fluoridated Irish Republic and non-fluoridated Northern Ireland show more disease with fluoridation.

THE NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION – NSF – is a chemical company trade association, the only entity which certifies fluorosilicic acid to be safe. Some 47 states require that only NSF 60 fluoride be used, including Washington. WAC 246-290-220(3), says: “any treatment chemicals … added to water intended for potable use must comply with ANSI/NSF Standard 60. The NSF web site and the NSF Standard for Drinking Water Additives, say: “Standard 60 … requires a toxicology review to determine that the product is safe at its maximum use level and … to determine if any contaminant concentrations have the potential to cause adverse human health effects. …” Some 20 toxicological studies are required, but NSF has admitted that toxicological studies are not being done. (See Hazen deposition, pages 22, 67). Thus fluoridation materials do not “comply” with NSF 60 and fluoridation with them is illegal.

SCRUBBER LIQUOR. Cities buy SiF by the tanker truck load. Everett pours 250 gallons per day, day after day, into drinking water, spending $300,000 per year. Fluorosilicic acid corrodes equipment and shortens its useful life. Hazmat suits must be worn to handle it. When the liquid is spilled on concrete, it burns a hole through it, as it will do to steel and glass. When fluoride is added to water, extra sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate – Draino® or soda ash – must be added to reduce acidity.

NO INFORMED CONSENT. Fluorosilicic acid is not a mere additive such as chlorine, which is there to kill microbes. Fluorosilicic acid meets the FDA and Washington definitions of a drug. Although it is an unapproved drug and in reality a poison, its administration is medical treatment. Informed consentbefore treatment is a fundamental principle of law and medicine. Forcing us all to take such a toxic waste drug violates our right to control our own bodies. It should not be our duty to remove the toxic waste. Water departments should stop adding it. Those who want to consume fluoride can swallow a little toothpaste or get a Luride prescription.

 

CAPTIVE WATER DISTRICTS, those which buy fluoridated water from Seattle, Everett and other large water districts never voted on fluoridation. They should demand non-fluoridated water and that they be held harmless from liability.

FISH. The fluoride content of sewer effluent is high enough to narcotize salmon and cause salmon runs to crash, as has happened in the Columbia Snohomish, and Sacramento Rivers.

MORE READING: 50 Reasons to Oppose Fluoridation, The Case Against Fluoridation by Dr. Paul Connett, 2006 National Research Council Report on Fluoride.

James Robert Deal, Attorney, Fluoride Class Action. James@Fluoride-Class-Action.com 425-771-1110